(A.K.Balamurugan) - About my name

We know the universe as formed out of the physical entities like space, fundamental particles, forces etc. Taking the particels first, is there anything new to be known about the existence of the fundamental particles? Yes.

The existence of every fundamental particle swings continously on both sides of an apparent non-existence! This fact (this is apparently a fact according to me) is interpreted from the nature of the wave functions that describe the particles. I am introducing a new interpretation to the quantum mechanical wave functions. (I will refer to this interpretation as the new picture and the older interpretations as conventional or old pictures in this article.) We know the modulus square of the wave function as describing the probability of existence of a particle as a function of space and time. By existence, we mean all the physical entities like mass, charge, space.... Modulus square is defined as the sum of the square of the real part and the negative of the square of the imaginary part. The only main purpose of the introduction of this negative sign appears to get an always positive quantity for the probability. This attitude has concealed the fact that I mentioned in the beginning. According to me, the squares of the real and imaginary parts of the wave function should be considered separately without changing any sign. This imples that the square of the imaginary part turns out to be negative. I consider that both these parts represent two components of the system. These two parts represent the two types of existences of the particle. As the mod square of the wave function was considered as meaning the existence of the system in the conventional picture, in the new picture, the squares of these two parts represent the existences of the system's two components. Since the squares of the two parts differ primarily in sign, the two existences are mutually opposite to each other by all respects. In tune with the conventional picture, the squares of these two parts in the new picture give the probability of finding these two existences separately.

Thus, according to the new picture, each particle has two components existing in two mutually opposite states. These two states of a particle vary simultaneously and sinusoidally with respect to either time alone as with an 's electron' in a hydrogen atom or to time and space as with other electrons in the hydrogen atom.

There is no way to say that either of the two states is more unique/familiar to us/preferred than the other. Both existences are equivalent as for as significance is considered. Accepting the notion of this picture of bi-polar existence, there may be an inclination by the mind to attribute the positive component to the actual physical system that we perceive in the actual world and perplex about the opposite component. Such a picturization is not correct. Every particle and every other aspect of the physical world is composed of these two components. Whatever we perceive or measure in a physical system is contributed by both these components equally.

The corollary is that every creation satisfies conservation by creating every entity with two mutually opposite components since 'the sum of these two components' amounts to the 'initial non-existent condition' before creation. The capacity of the source is unlimited in creating physical entities. In this sense, the total matter, energy, etc. of the universe is not conserved to any constant. It has been increasing with time since big bang. Both are creations of equal importance in all respects. The opposite signs of these two existences imply that all the attributes of these existences are opposite in nature to each other. The attribute, for example, mass, of these two components of the particle are mutually opposite to each other. However, we have to remember that both of these components are equivalent, although our intuition may prompt to consider the positive-existence-component to be more familiar.

Let us analyze the concepts with the help of a real world particle, an electron in a hydrogen atom. Its wave function is of the form R(r)f(l,m)exp(iωt). If we consider an electron with the magnetic quantum number, 'm' equal to 0, the square of the real part of the wave function is [R(r)f(l,0)cos(iωt)]^{2} and the square of the imaginary part is -[R(r)f(l,0)sin(iωt)]^{2}. Thus, these two existences mutually complement each other in magnitude to make the sum of their absolute values constant. Thus by adding the first one and the negative of the second one, we get the monotonous independence from time. The two components represent the same single electron, but we have to consider them as different components of the same electron. The graphical view of this for an s-electron is presented in Illustration 1. The two tints, blue and orange, represent an existence each, say, positive and negative existences respectively. The combined view of these two existences is given in Illustration 2. The intermediate tints in this illustration mean the combination of the two existences in varying ratios and the extreme colours mean the presence of one and only one existence.

**A note on GIF animations**: If the illustrations take time to load, the timing of the animations may be wrong! In such a situation, visit another page and come back by using 'Back' or 'Forward' button of your browser. Now, since the images may not be downloaded again, the GIF timing will be proper!

*Illustra**tion 1: The two existences** of an s-electron*

* Illustration 2: Combined view of the existences (The swinging of s-electron's existence)*

If we consider an electron with magnetic quantum number, 'm', not equal to zero, then the probability functions of its two existences show azimuthal variation also in addition to the temporal variation. The probability functions of the positive and negative existences have the factors [cos(mϕ+ωt)]^{2} and -[sin(mϕ+ωt)]^{2} respectively. The combined effect of both the existences is illustrated in Illustration 3 analogous to the Illustration 2 of the s-electron. There is an exciting feature in this picture that the probability distributions of the two existences revolve around the nucleus, which is analogous to the logically expected classical revolution.

*Illustration** 3:* *The time dependance of a p-electron*

The new picture gives an interesting **interpretation about the spin** of the electrons. In the old interpretations, there is not a clear conceivable account of the spin of the electrons. The new picture explains the spin of the electron as its swinging between the two types of existences with time. As expressed in the beginning, the two existences have opposite properties attributed to them, If space is one among those properrties, the positive existence is occupying positive space, while the other existence is occupying the opposite (negative) space. Thus, an electron occupies either positive space or negative space or parts of these two spaces depending on the time. However, at any time, the remaining space is available for another electron to occupy. Thus, if ψ is the wave function of the first electron, then, iψ is the wave function of the other electron occupying the counter-space, that is, having opposite spin. In the case of the s-electron discussed above, the spins of two 1s electrons is shown in Illustration 4. The second electron swings between the two states in the opposite direction to that of the first one. This is how two electrons with the same n, l and m values are allowed to exist together but with opposite spins.

*Illustration** 4: **Two s-electrons 'spinning' in opposite directions*

I propose to calculate the magnetic moment corresponding to such creation and vanishing of electric charges.

Analyzing an electron with non-zero 'm' value, in a similar way, reveals more facts that are interesting. The existence-state of this electron shows azimuthal variation unlike the s-electrons. When the azimuthal part in the positive state swings towards the negative state with time, the other azimuthal part in the negative state swings towards the positive state at the same time. This swinging of states with time, gives the two spatially varying states, the classical appearance of the **electrons revolving around the nucleus**. The orbital revolution of two p-electrons with the same n, l and m values but with opposite spins is shown in Illustration 5. If we imagine an opaque screen in front of illustration 3 or illustration 5, with a small window in it, we will see through this window, the spinning of p-electron similar to that found in Illustration 4, which is for an s-electron. The exciting scene of revolution is the outcome of the spin of the electron. The two electrons show revolution in the same direction since their 'm' have the same sign. If the sign of 'm' is changed, the direction of revolution will change.

This revolution represents motion in the scale of an elementary particle. By extending this picture to any more complex or even macroscopic systems, it should be possible to attribute the motion found in that system to the spin of the particles constituting that system.

*Illustration 5: p-electrons spinning in opposite directions*

Hence, in compliance with the old picture, a spinning electron cannot be thought of as the revolution of a spherical ball of charge around its own axis. The spin is the time dependant evolution of the system.

The subtle source introduced here appears to correspond to the 'Maya' described in the Hindu literature. The Hindu literature say that God created the universe from Maya. This theory complies with the literature by the analogy of Maya with the 'subtle source'. (More about this subtle source in the article, "Dark Matter")

I would like to calculate the magnetic moment corresponding to the appearance and vanishing of the electric charge of the electron according to this picture. But, how to deal the polarities of the magnetic moments, created by the two mutually opposite existences? First, let us calculate the moment for one existence and then find how to add up the moments created by the two existences.

What is the quantity that the energy and mass of the universe are conserved to, if this picture is not taken? Is it known? Is it not an unknown and huge (Infinite?) quantity? According to this picture, they are conserved to zero or "some (no)thing" from which they were created. This is more meaningful, logical and elegant than the older notion.

The existence of everything we see is real but symmetric about the non-existence. Otherwise, what is the symmetry about the very existence? Also otherwise, questions like, "If matter can neither be created or destroyed, how did the matter that composes our universe come into existence?" remain unanswered.

Can these two components of existences be the real antimatter to each other? Can this picture help in removing the controversial concept of sea of negative energy particles proposed by Dirac?

P.S. I created this document using OpenOffice and LibreOffice. They support Gif animations whereas MS word doesn't. I used GIMP to create the gif animations used in this document. I thank these and other opensource software communities for the help I receive through their products.